Common types of electric forklift motors
Forklifts are an important branch of construction machinery and an important equipment in the logistics industry. They are mechanical products that are powered by internal combustion engines, batteries, or human labor for handling, warehousing, and loading and unloading. Unlike other construction machinery vehicles, forklifts have a wide range of applications, with downstream users covering numerous industries such as manufacturing, logistics, construction, military systems, textile, chemical, metallurgical, and energy. Electric forklifts and electric storage trucks can greatly save labor costs, improve labor efficiency, be more environmentally friendly and energy-saving, and have a broader market space.
1. Three phase AC motor.
Technically speaking, this is the simplest type of electric motor in terms of structure. The principle is to transmit three-phase AC power to a fixed coil, generating a rotating magnetic field to induce voltage on the short circuited rotor. AC motors do not have brushes, nor do they have the maximum current limitations typically imposed by DC motors. This means that motors can generate more energy and greater braking torque in practical use, allowing for faster operation.
In AC motors, heat mainly occurs in the fixed sub coils of the motor casing, which facilitates cooling and heat dissipation. If necessary, the rotor can be sealed. AC motors do not have vulnerable parts that require regular replacement, and they are more efficient, durable, and cost-effective than DC motors.
2. Series DC motor.
This is the oldest and most traditional electric motor. The current is transmitted to the battery and dried, and then transmitted to the stator through a carbon brush. This method has two drawbacks: all current must be transported through the carbon brush, and the performance depends on the physical size and wear of the carbon brush. Most importantly, this limits the performance of braking. In addition, the carbon brush of the motor must be replaced regularly as a vulnerable part, otherwise it will greatly affect the lifespan of the motor.
Considering this, many manufacturers install devices to detect wear and issue warnings on forklifts, which increases the cost of forklifts. All motors generate heat, but in DC motors, heat is mainly generated in the internal components of the motor, so most DC motors are equipped with a fan for heat dissipation.
3. Separately Excited Electric Motor.
This is a relatively advanced DC motor, where the energy of the stator and armature is input separately. Similar to series motors, this technology has been applied for a considerable amount of time. The new technology uses a separately excited parallel magnetic field and armature, making the performance control of the motor much better than that of a series motor. This type of electric motor is commonly referred to as a 4-quadrant motor because it can travel and brake in both directions. However, the defects of the electric motor carbon brush still exist.
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